Abstract (Expand)

Glycerol, a major by-product of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is of significant importance to the wine, beer, and ethanol production industries. To gain a clearer understanding of and to quantify the extent to which parameters of the pathway affect glycerol flux in S. cerevisiae, a kinetic model of the glycerol synthesis pathway has been constructed. Kinetic parameters were collected from published values. Maximal enzyme activities and intracellular effector concentrations were determined experimentally. The model was validated by comparing experimental results on the rate of glycerol production to the rate calculated by the model. Values calculated by the model agreed well with those measured in independent experiments. The model also mimics the changes in the rate of glycerol synthesis at different phases of growth. Metabolic control analysis values calculated by the model indicate that the NAD(+)-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction has a flux control coefficient (C(J)v1) of approximately 0.85 and exercises the majority of the control of flux through the pathway. Response coefficients of parameter metabolites indicate that flux through the pathway is most responsive to dihydroxyacetone phosphate concentration (R(J)DHAP= 0.48 to 0.69), followed by ATP concentration (R(J)ATP = -0.21 to -0.50). Interestingly, the pathway responds weakly to NADH concentration (R(J)NADH = 0.03 to 0.08). The model indicates that the best strategy to increase flux through the pathway is not to increase enzyme activity, substrate concentration, or coenzyme concentration alone but to increase all of these parameters in conjunction with each other.

Authors: Garth R Cronwright, Johann M Rohwer, Bernard A Prior

Date Published: 30th Aug 2002

Journal: Appl. Environ. Microbiol.

Abstract (Expand)

The proteins cdc2 and cyclin form a heterodimer (maturation promoting factor) that controls the major events of the cell cycle. A mathematical model for the interactions of cdc2 and cyclin is constructed. Simulation and analysis of the model show that the control system can operate in three modes: as a steady state with high maturation promoting factor activity, as a spontaneous oscillator, or as an excitable switch. We associate the steady state with metaphase arrest in unfertilized eggs, the spontaneous oscillations with rapid division cycles in early embryos, and the excitable switch with growth-controlled division cycles typical of nonembryonic cells.

Author: J. J. Tyson

Date Published: 15th Aug 1991

Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

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